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Usefulness of this Database

Most influenza viruses deposited in our library were isolated from migratory waterfowl in Japan, Mongolia and other countries in the surveillance studies. Fecal samples were collected and inoculated into chicken embryonated eggs for virus isolation. Isolated viruses were characterized and stored in deep freezer. The sequence data of viral genes were registered in the public sequence database (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank).


This library is useful as bio-resource composed of not only sequence data but also infectious viruses and plasmid clones containing viral genomes, for the diagnosis, vaccine production and basic research.

Surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus are the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Migratory waterfowl is the natural reservoir for viruses of all sixteen HA (H1-H16) and nine NA (N1-N9) subtypes.


Influenza viruses of 61 combinations of HA and NA subtypes have been isolated from fecal samples of waterfowl in surveillance studies. So far, 83 other combinations have been generated by the genetic reassortment procedure in chicken embryonated eggs. Thus, non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of all 144 combinations of HA and NA subtypes have been stocked in our library. The library will be updated when novel viruses are isolated in future global surveillance studies.